To the Nurses Today… And The Nurses Yet To Be

In early May, I had the pleasure of giving the virtual commencement speech to the graduating class of the University of Illinois College of Nursing. It was an honor to speak to the next generation of nurses as they step into a world forever changed by the COVID-19 pandemic. In a normal year, it takes hard work to complete a nursing degree; during a pandemic, it takes extra dedication to pursue your studies online.

As a nurse myself, I’m proud of the accomplishments of these 400 new nurses and look forward to providing them with resources and information as they start the next phase of their career, and for many years to come.

Please join me in wishing a warm welcome to these new graduates as they enter a world that needs and appreciates the hard work of nurses more than ever.

Video Transcript (below):

I’m Patti Brennan, Director of the National Library of Medicine. I want to add my congratulations to the choruses of friends, families, and colleagues on your accomplishments being acknowledged this day of the graduation at the University of Illinois College of Nursing.

Almost 200 of you are entering the profession for the first time, and another 200 are receiving graduate degrees in recognition of your advanced education in nursing specializations.

I want to speak today to the nurses who you are right now, the nurses who you will become, and the nurses who you will need, and finally to the nurses,  yet unborn,  who will serve society in the future.

To the nurses who you are today:  

Your nursing education experience was like no other over the past 100 years!  You’ve learned how to learn via Zoom and TikTok, transform nursing interventions into telemedicine delivery, and develop novel skills engaging patients not only as informants but as partners in care. One of the few positive outcomes of this coronavirus pandemic is the societal recognition of the essential value and contributions of nursing. So, you are entering a world that both needs you greatly and is readily accepting of the contributions you could make. 

I hope you will take with you the joy of friendships you made during your educational time here at U of I College of Nursing: the excitement of learning, the meaningful contributions of patients who accompanied you on your learning journey, and the hope that suffused your faculty members as they guided you on your journey. I trust that the foundation of your education here will give you a firm basis, grounding you in trust, supporting your explorations.

You are entering a world that needs nursing more than ever before. I urge you to use the professional education you have had to support doing the urgent tasks in front of you while remaining true to nursing’s social contract. The hallmark of a professional is doing a task that looks like something someone else could do, but is done with the sophistication of specialized knowledge and skill that grows from the deep foundation, the future vision, and the broad perspective that we draw from our profession. It’s not enough to act, we must BE nurses.

To the nurses you will be in 2031:

What do you see when you look back across the decade since graduation? Have you achieved pay equity? Did you accomplish the next level of education that you envisioned as you completed your degree today? Did you find satisfaction and depth in the area of nursing you originally selected, or did you explore several areas before finding your niche? Or maybe, did you find a way to express the values and knowledge of nursing through another profession such as law or design? Wherever you are in ten years, I hope you look back in wonder, awe, gratitude, and satisfaction.

How does the world around you look in 2031? Has our treatment of Mother Earth improved so that the UN’s 17 Goals for Sustainable Development have actually been met? Have we achieved social equity and removed health disparities engendered by structural racism? Was the coronavirus pandemic the last pandemic of the decade or was it the start of a pandemic decade? Has someone made driverless cars practical or figured out how to get rid of all of those cords on our computers?

To the nurses you will need in 2071:

Right now, I’m just about the age that you will be in 2071. I am so confident of the importance of our profession to society and of our value to it that I am sure there will be nurses out there in the future ready to serve society.

These are the nurses who will be there to care for you—I will be long gone by then. So, I’m going express my hopes for the ways nurses approach patient care and knowledge discovery with some personal reflections. 

I hope that these nurses will remember that confidence is often accompanied by uncertainty, and that nurses must consider both as they diagnose and treat the human response to living.  

I hope they will remember that many of my age want nurses to know that we feel like we did 30 years ago, think we look like they did 20 years ago, have had meaningful and interesting career and life contributions, and bring the wisdom of aging and the freedom of age. All of this makes us even more desiring of good nursing care. Nurses should let us know how to find them, how to recognize them, and how to benefit from their expertise.

I’m less afraid of dying than I was earlier in my life in part because I feel like I could live forever, or at least another 30 years, in good health with the love and support of my friends and family.

I want the nurses who care for you when you are my age to respect that goal of mine and use it to shape their practices. Like the future you, know that even now I want your guidance to help me live as fully as I can.

I don’t want nurses to be afraid to bring up hard topics—social disruption, social isolation, loss, loneliness, hopes—because all of these shape how we approach my health. We can be better partners if nurses are as brave as we need them to be.

To the nurses of 2121 yet unborn:

These are the nurses who will be there to bring nursing into the future. What legacy will you leave them? How will you help shape the future nurse? What can you do to create in them the very excitement that you feel today?

Can you share your experiences, remove barriers, open pathways of influence, give them shoulders to stand on? Can you help those nurses yet unborn know that it is better to ask a question than to answer any single question?

Can you inspire them to discover and not just remember? And more importantly, can you help them build partnerships and pathways with people who bring the best of nursing to complement and extend the best that is in that person?

What can you do to prepare the world for nursing? To make the very best practice environment for nursing? What ways can you engage with architects, home builders, city planners to make the world not only a place that nurses LIVE in, but is livable because of nursing? Over 30 years ago, a great nurse thinker identified that it is a critical function of nursing to create an environment that supports development. What will you do to build that environment so that the nurses of 2121 can live as nurses, being nurses?

Congratulations and celebrations to all of you—faculty, students, administrators, family, and friends. Another journey is complete, and another is starting.

Reflect, Reimagine, Reenergize TOGETHER

Guest post by Patricia Flatley Brennan, Director, NLM; Dianne Babski, Associate Director for Library Operations, NLM; and Amanda J. Wilson, Chief of the Office of Engagement and Training, NLM.

Welcome to NLM @ MLA ’21 vConference! This year, for the Medical Library Association (MLA) virtual meeting, we organized NLM’s activities around three themes:

  1. Reflect on the impact of the past year,
  2. Reimagine our work to make what we do better, and
  3. Reenergize by reconnecting with NLM colleagues and embracing the new normal! 

This year offered many opportunities to pause and reflect. We were struck by the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the global response of lockdowns, personal adoption of public health measures, and more than 1.7 billion vaccine doses already administered worldwide. Our reflections led us to a reaffirmation of the importance of medical libraries as a source of trusted health information and the critical need for work-life balance in everyone’s lives. Like others around the world, we looked on in horror and dismay at repeated episodes of violence and injustice inflicted upon communities of color. We hope that our partners around the country will join the momentum surrounding the NIH UNITE initiative to end structural racism and racial inequalities in the health research enterprise.

The maximum telework posture of NLM and many other industries prompted reimagining our work life now and in the future. We structured many of our NLM @ MLA ’21 presentations to share our experiences of working at a distance, video conferencing, and providing library services during a time when the physical doors of libraries are closed.

We hope that the opportunity to gather in spirit, rather than in person, brings the reenergizing atmosphere that often comes with greeting old friends and meeting new colleagues. We hope you’ll take advantage of the opportunities to gather around professional conversations and social engagement.

NLM at the Medical Library Association 2021 vConference

NLM’s participation at the MLA ’21 vConference began on May 17th and will continue through May 27th. One of the advantages of a virtual symposium is that you’re not restricted to viewing a session once – all NLM sessions will be available online after May 27th.

NLM began this year’s conference with a full day symposium introducing the 2021-2026 Network of the National Library of Medicine (NNLM). The day started with a celebration of NNLM accomplishments to date, particularly over the last 5 years. This session attracted more than 250 attendees who reflected on where NLM has been. For example, do you know the highest number of regions that the NNLM ever had? Was it 9, 11, or 50? Or, how much outreach funding NNLM awarded to communities in the last year? Over or under $1 million? This session also provided an overview of how the Network has been reimagined for the 2021-2026 cooperative agreement, and is being reenergized though exciting and innovative programming and projects. Find these answers and what else is in store for the Network on the NNLM @ MLA day page!

During last week’s dedicated exhibit time, we hosted 33 one-hour Meet the Experts sessions, involving over 50 speakers covering a wide range of topics including data science practice, PubMed and PubMed Central, tools for scholarly publishing, the 2020-2021 Associate Fellows cohort and projects, intramural training at NLM, consumer health resources, health data standards, and many more – whew! The “NNLM Reading Club: A Vehicle for Starting Health Conversations” took top marks for being the most popular session.

We also provided special highlights of NLM’s response to COVID-19 in the Exhibitor Solution Showcase. NLM’s Dina Demner-Fushman, MD, PhD, Valerie Florance, PhD, Yanli Wang, MD, PhD, Amanda Wilson, MSLS, and Robin Taylor, MLIS, presented on topics such as TREC-COVID, a competition applying national language processing to resolve challenges related to COVID-19; the Rapid Acceleration of Diagnostics projects designed to speed COVID-19 testing, and to identify new ways of detecting COVID-19 in people and in the environment (think of an electronic nose or waste water sampling); the Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Initiative, now known as ReCOVer; and how common data elements are making the data acquired through COVID-19 studies harmonized and available for researchers in the future. 

Teresa Zayas Cabán, PhD, NLM’s Assistant Director for Policy Development, presented updates and priorities from NLM and NIH at the Legislative Update session, and, not-for-profit Stop Foodborne Illness executive, Mitzi D. Baum, MS, delivered remarks on the topic of public health and food safety as the keynote speaker for this year’s Joseph Leiter NLM/MLA Lectureship. You can take a deep dive into the NLM@MLA’21 website where you can find links to the 2021 Leiter Lecture recording; NLM and NNLM On-Demand Presentations, Lightning Talks; Immersion Sessions; biographies for NLM and NNLM staff participating in the Meet the Experts sessions; and more!

As we close out our participation in the MLA ’21 vConference, our last don’t miss events are:

  • Take a Break with Dr. Patricia Flatley Brennan on May 26 at 6 pm (CT). Join Dr. Brennan for a signature trivia evening break. Join Us!
  • The ever-popular, annual NLM Update, May 27 at 10:15 am (CT), this year featuring NLM Director Patricia Flatley Brennan, RN, PhD; Associate Director for Library Operations Dianne Babski; and Acting Director, Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, Olivier Bodenreider, MD, PhD.

Reflect. Reimagine. Reenergize.

As we reflect on our experience at the MLA ’21 vConference, our interactions with colleagues has provided even more insight to reimagine our work to make what we do better, and reenergize as we embrace the new normal!

Which element of this year’s theme do you relate to most? Why?

(left to right)
Dianne Babski, Associate Director for Library Operations at NLM
Patricia Flatley Brennan, RN, PhD, NLM Director
Amanda J. Wilson, Chief, Office of Engagement and Training at NLM

Diversity Catalysts: Attracting Talent to NLM and NIH

Guest post by David Landsman, PhD, Senior Investigator, Computational Biology Branch in NLM’s National Center for Biotechnology Information and Kathel Dunn, PhD, Associate Fellowship Coordinator, NLM

NLM is committed to attracting, developing, and retaining diverse library and scientific talent. Professional development at NLM yields completed research, publications, and entrée to a network that extends to NIH, the academic community, and industry at large. In the collective management of NLM training programs, we are aware of the ability of an NLM fellowship or residency to advance a person’s career. Our challenge is recruiting diverse talent to NLM and ensuring that our training environments contribute to their success. We’re also keenly aware of the power of being selected by NLM, and we take our role in exercising that power seriously by developing recruitment strategies that extend beyond our own networks, tapping into the networks of our trainees, and in pipeline programs.

In 2014, NLM joined an NIH-wide initiative within the Office of Scientific Workforce Diversity (SWD) to enhance the scientific workforce. One of its programs, Diversity Catalysts, engages NIH Institutes and Centers to develop and pilot new, evidence-based approaches to enhancing diversity throughout NIH.

Through the Diversity Catalysts program, NLM has participated in shaping an implicit-bias education module that has been rolled out to all staff across NIH. We’ve integrated portions of the SWD-developed recruitment search protocol into our own recruitment strategies. We’ve put this training to good use in the hiring mechanisms and practices within the training programs at NLM, as well as mechanisms to hire highly qualified principal investigators and training staff.

Recruiting for the future is now.

The trainees, who will join us in 2036 for the 200th anniversary of the founding of NLM, are currently 10 years old. They were born on the cusp of the United States becoming a majority-minority country. They spent their tenth year at home, living through a pandemic. Furthermore, our future trainees will come to us stamped by the technology of online education and a freedom gained through science and technology development. We’re engaging in discussions about how to welcome them at NLM. We’re looking for ways to capture and engage around the unique and differing experiences of the pandemic: some of our future trainees may have been at home participating in online learning; others may have lost a year of education completely.

What we’re doing now is keeping track of our diversity, equity, and inclusion efforts by reviewing our recruiting and interview practices to ensure that they are free of bias, promoting trainee attendance at diversity, equity, and inclusion trainings offered by NIH’s Office of Intramural Training and Education, and continuing our practice of conducting regular individual and cohort debriefs to learn how we can improve our programs.   

NLM stands with NIH to end structural racism in biomedical research.

Through the NIH’s UNITE initiative, we are working together to establish new ways to support diversity, equity, and inclusion, and identify and dismantle any policies that may harm our workforce and our science. We actively support trainees’ participation in the UNITE initiative and have noticed genuine interest among our trainees in wanting to engage and be a part of the institutional change.

NLM offers scientific training programs for high school students, bachelor’s students, graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, and fellowships for librarians, historians, and history-minded researchers from a range of disciplines, from the fields of medicine, anthropology, and literature, to philosophy, law, and the arts, and many more. We promote the opportunity to study at NLM, as well as share the successes of our trainees. We use the visibility afforded to NLM to highlight trainees and believe that the power of attraction plays an undeniable role in bringing talent to NLM. However, that’s not enough. We know we must do the intentional work of making connections, extending invitations, and following up with potential candidates. We must let them know what we see in them: future scientists, librarians, historical thinkers, and leaders.

Throughout the next 15 years, as 2036 grows near, we will continue to build on our ability to attract and retain diverse candidates.

Our challenge remains to advance a strong institutional commitment to attract a diverse workforce to the NLM administrative, librarian, and scientific programs with increased outreach and, by example, extending our experience to the education of NLM staff in making best practice hiring decisions.

David Landsman, PhD serves as one of NLM’s representative to the NIH Diversity Catalysts. He is also a senior investigator at NLM with a special interest in the merging of results obtained in computational biology analyses with those derived from experiments in biochemistry, molecular biology, cell biology, and genetics

Kathel Dunn, PhD serves as one of NLM’s representative to the NIH Diversity Catalysts. She is also NLM’s Associate Fellowship Coordinator where she is responsible for oversight of the Associate Fellowship Program curriculum, recruiting for the Program, and providing mentorship and guidance for the Associate Fellows.

Thank You, My Nurse Colleagues

Writing these blog posts gives me a chance to showcase some of the great work done by our team at NLM, and reflect on the roles I play as part of the NIH leadership team, Director of the National Library of Medicine, a mother-daughter-sister-aunt-friend, and an advocate for self-care management education and support for all people. Yet, nothing compares to the opportunity that this blog gives me to reflect on my chosen profession, nursing.

This year for National Nurses Day, I want to acknowledge the enormous contributions made by all health care professionals in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly by the nurses and members of nursing care teams. I want to express my sorrow and deepest sympathies to the friends, families, and co-workers of nurses who faced health issues or died from work-acquired COVID-19 infections. I am grateful to front line care providers, ranging from nursing home aides to emergency department staff, particularly the nurses whose creative problem solving and attention to complex patient needs helped so many over the past year.

Nurses are well known for their ability to innovate—finding just the right way to make one patient more comfortable or address the respiratory distress of another. The perplexities brought about by the unfamiliarity of the coronavirus infection required innovation at warp speed in nursing units across the country.

I thank you, my nurse colleagues, for what you did over this past year and what you continue to do in the face of tremendous personal risk and self-sacrifice. May your accomplishments give you the strength you need to continue, and your contributions be acknowledged and treasured by those for whom you care.

For my part, I’m not on the front line physically, but the role NLM played this past year was focused on finding ways to support people who are on the front lines of this pandemic. Whether it was providing patient-specific COVID-19 information through our MedlinePlus Connect service, or expanding access to and making available coronavirus-related journal articles to support evidence based practice approaches, NLM has been here for YOU!

We collaborated with publishers to drop paywalls, so that the literature could be available to anyone who needed it. We accelerated processing of genomic sequences to speed up the process of tracking variants and identifying new drug targets. Our team at NLM helped mount the NIH’s response to the COVID pandemic with new research programs, particularly designing advanced data systems to make sure we learn as much from this experience to prepare for the next. While literature cannot provide the comfort of a hug, it can provide ideas that can aid in supporting someone through the process of grief.

My thoughts turn to my nurse colleagues who have witnessed so much death this year—among your patients, co-workers, and communities at large. I extend my wishes for resilience and comfort. I can offer little, but the acknowledgement that your experience of COVID-19 was so different from mine, and the assurance that NLM’s programs of research and offerings of significant literature resources will continue to make available the information needed for practice, and the learning that comes from practice.

In April 2020, as the pandemic was emerging, our colleagues from the United Kingdom offered some helpful hints in this Journal of Clinical Nursing article, one of the freely accessible articles made available through NLM’s Public Health Emergency COVID-19 Initiative. The authors encouraged nurses to address their own psychological and safety needs through peer and team support. This includes looking after each other’s well-being and encouraging temporary and long-standing teams to check-in on each other—particularly at the beginning of a shift, where such contact can activate a sense of social support. The authors also exhort that the stress response to staffing shortages, a sense of futility, and unrelenting grief is normal and will resolve – and yet each person responds differently, so make sure you check in with yourself!

For every one of you who greets each workday with the worry of exposing your family to COVID-19 or putting yourself in harm’s way, I thank you for persisting, and for what you are doing for patients. I trust that the next few months will be a time for resetting your practice to something that is manageable and less fraught with risks.

As we celebrate Nurses Day, we do so with sadness arising from the strains experienced by our profession over the past year, the loss from too many deaths, and the exuberance of the enduring strength of nursing! My hope for Nurses Day 2022 is that our common paths lead to a healthier, safer world. 

Please let me know how NLM can join you on this journey.

One Year of Rapid Acceleration of Diagnostics, and Anticipating New Challenges

This piece was authored in collaboration with leadership across NIH and represents a unified effort to meet the testing-related challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic with excellence and innovation.

Over the past year, our team of NIH leaders has used this blog to report on an initiative called Rapid Acceleration of Diagnostics – or RADxSM for short. The RADx initiative includes five key components designed to address the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic by ensuring that companies make and distribute tests to detect SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19; develop ways to deliver those tests and results directly to people—independent of their age, race, ethnicity, disability, financial status, or where they live; and invest in innovative approaches to detect emerging and spreading infections. NIH has also added a new component to RADx – to find ways to understand and address the concerns of people worried about testing, vaccine safety, and efficacy. The RADx components are described below.

RADx Underserved Populations (RADx-UP) is a significant investment to bring testing to traditionally underserved communities. Last fall, we launched a nationwide program, involving more than 60 research teams and a Coordination and Data Collection Center, to better understand the needs of people in a wide range of communities, and to ensure that underserved communities have adequate access to COVID-19-testing, and return results in ways that are actionable to promote health. We estimate that up to 500,000 people will participate in the study in more than 33 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico—representing a broad spectrum of communities of color and socially vulnerable populations. RADx-UP is collaborating with the NIH Community Engagement Alliance (CEAL) Against COVID-19 Disparities to further amplify the NIH’s focus on communities hardest hit. 

Through two programs within the RADx initiative — RADx Tech and RADx ATP (Advanced Technology Platforms)—researchers aim to accelerate evaluation, validation, and scale up of promising COVID-19 testing technologies for laboratory, point-of-care and at-home settings, and provide guidance on when to test. More than 700 applications were submitted to the programs’ unique “innovation funnel” review process over a three-month period. To date, 29 projects have progressed through multiple phases of review to receive contracts for expansion of manufacturing and clinical studies. RADx Tech and RADx-ATP-supported companies have increased COVID-19 testing capacity across the United States by more than 150 million tests and compressed the typical multi-year tech commercialization process into approximately six months.

RADx Radical (RADx-rad) is designed to support innovative research programs focused on developing novel and potentially “radical” ways to detect infectious disease from SARS-CoV-2 or other agents, and evaluate community spread. Unlike the RADx Tech and RADx-ATP programs, which focus on developing technologies that can be delivered in the near term, projects within RADx-rad may require additional time for development. While some of these projects may not be available in the near term to respond to the current COVID-19 pandemic, they could be potentially applicable to deploy quickly for future pandemics. Currently, RADx-rad projects involve a broad array of activities that range from analysis of wastewater for infectious agents, like SARS-CoV-2, all the way to the development of artificial sensory devices to detect volatile organic compounds that uniquely emanate from individuals carrying an infection. Most notably, RADx-rad provides a mechanism for giving radical ideas a chance to demonstrate efficacy and promise.

A central focus of the RADx data management strategy is the safe management of data that is collected, standardized, and harmonized as a result of the implementation of new and novel testing methodologies. The close collaboration with RADx data and coordinating centers to develop and implement common data elements and models is important to the success of this strategy; along with the facilitation of harmonized data sharing on a secure cloud-based data platform. This platform, the RADx data hub, will provide a research data repository of curated and de-identified RADx COVID-19 data—allowing researchers to find, aggregate, and perform data analysis. The data hub will also enable researchers to share results of their analyses (citing relevant data) with collaborators and the external community; and provide a portal where researchers can find additional data and information from other NIH-supported COVID-19 resources.

Although programs such as RADx have helped create COVID-19 tests and make them more available to the public, our work and your work is not done.

Vaccines will go a long way in bringing protections to society and researchers are still learning how well the vaccine prevents people from spreading the virus. Public health measures, such as wearing face masks and frequent testing, continue to be important in efforts to contain this pandemic and address its consequences on society. Testing resources and places to get tested have become more accessible, but still need to be more widely available, affordable, and convenient. Even once people are vaccinated, testing for the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the nasal passage or in saliva needs to continue. This will help detect and identify new variants, discover asymptomatic infections, and help reduce community spread. As case rates decrease, these strategies will be complemented by the expansion of contact tracing to control the pandemic.

As vaccines help reduce the overall national prevalence of COVID-19, it’s important to pay attention to local trends in the percent of people who test positive and continue to test accordingly. Baseline testing should be adjusted to match regional and community needs and to prevent surges in community transmission. As the prevalence of positive tests decreases in a population, it will become cost-effective to test pooled samples from multiple donors by highly sensitive molecular tests, followed by testing of individual samples from any pools that are positive. Access to inexpensive rapid antigen tests authorized by FDA for self-testing and serial screening will continue to expand. Finally, tests that are designed to detect the presence of specific SARS-CoV-2 variants will become available. Ultimately, we’ll need to have baseline testing platforms and protocols in place to identify future outbreaks, detect other pathogens, and leverage these advances for accessible testing and treatment of other diseases.

The three W’s will remain an important part of society for some time:

  1. Wash your hands often and for at least 20 seconds.
  2. Wear your mask correctly for maximum protection.
  3. Watch your distance and avoid indoor gatherings without masks.

People need to be aware of and encouraged to sign up and use the exposure notification apps created by public health authorities and available on iPhone and Android devices. This secure electronic effort complements contact tracing and appears to be effective at saving lives by alerting people if they have been exposed to COVID-19 and providing guidance for further action.

Our response to COVID-19 is built not only on lessons learned over the past year, but also on the sustained investment in biomedical research of the past decades. We are proud of our agency and researchers for their efforts to mobilize and tackle this destructive pandemic. We are also very grateful to our research participants in communities around the country.

We’re interested in hearing how we could better serve the public.

Top Row (left to right):
Diana W. Bianchi, MD, Director, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Patricia Flatley Brennan, RN, PhD, Director, National Library of Medicine
Noni Byrnes, PhD, Director, Center for Scientific Review
Gary H. Gibbons, MD, Director, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Second Row (left to right):
Joshua Gordon, MD, PhD, Director, National Institute of Mental Health
Susan Gregurick, PhD, Associate Director for Data Science and Director, Office of Data Science Strategy
Richard J. Hodes, MD, Director, National Institute on Aging
Helene Langevin, MD, Director, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health

Third Row (left to right):
Jon R. Lorsch, PhD, Director, National Institute of General Medical Sciences
George A. Mensah, MD, Division Director, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Eliseo J. Perez-Stable, MD, Director, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities
William Riley, PhD, Director, NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research

Bottom Row (left to right):
Tara A. Schwetz, PhD, Associate Deputy Director, National Institutes of Health
Bruce J. Tromberg, PhD, Director, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering
Nora D. Volkow, MD, Director, National Institute on Drug Abuse
Richard (Rick) P. Woychik, PhD, Director, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences