What’s New in NLM’s Extramural Programs?

Guest post by Andrew Wiley, Video Producer, NLM Office of Communications and Public Liaison (OCPL).

NLM recently released videos on two exciting projects funded through the Extramural Programs Division.

Using Machine Intelligence to Prevent Medication Dispensing Errors

With help from an NLM grant, Drs. Corey Lester, Raed Al Kontar, and Xi Jessie Yang of the University of Michigan College of Pharmacy in Ann Arbor, Michigan, are using machine intelligence (MI) to assist in the pill verification process and help avoid dangerous and costly pharmacy dispensing errors.

Pharmacists play a critical role in helping safeguard people and communities, and we acknowledge their assistance this October as we celebrate American Pharmacists Month. Dr. Lester and his colleagues are making sure that MI reports accurate information to encourage providers to make sound, trustworthy decisions. In doing so, pharmacists can ensure that patients get the correct pills in the correct bottle and create safer systems that can save lives. Dr. Lester’s proposal was to develop and design artificial intelligence, specifically a computer vision model, that could look at a picture of pills inside a medication bottle and accurately identify the contents of that bottle.

Watch the video about this research and find the transcript here.

After Foster Care: Empowering Youths with Personal Health Records

At Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Dr. Dexheimer is using NLM grant funding to help young adults who are aging out of the foster care system access their personal health records. According to Dr. Dexheimer, there are 427,000 children in the foster care system, and approximately 5,000 youths emancipate, or age out, every year.

Using the Health Hero online platform, Dr. Dexheimer is providing emancipated young adults with access to and control over their own personal health records and improving their health care knowledge as a result. Health care outcomes for these young adults are poor partially due to lack of access to their medical history. The video also includes two young women who recently emancipated from foster care, who were willing to share their stories and experiences using Health Hero.

Watch the video about this effort and find the transcript here.

Get More Video Content and Learn More About NLM

Visit Welcome to NLM to take a virtual tour and to learn more about NLM’s programs, tools, and resources. Be sure to subscribe to the NLM YouTube channel for access to more great video content.

Mr. Wiley is a video producer and writer for NLM OCPL. Before joining NLM in 2008, Mr. Wiley produced local television in Frederick, Maryland and worked as a video journalist for The Frederick News-Post.

Using Large Datasets to Improve Health Outcomes

Guest post by Lyn Hardy, PhD, RN, Program Officer, Division of Extramural Programs, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Before the advent of algorithms to determine the best way to treat and prevent heart disease, a health care provider looking for best practices for their patients may not have had the resources to find that best method. Today, health care decision-making for individuals and their health care providers is made easier by predictive and preventive models, which were developed with the goal of guiding the decision-making process. One example is the Patient Level Prediction of Clinical Outcomes and Cost-Effectiveness project led by Columbia University Health Sciences.

These models are created using computer algorithms (a set of rules for problem-solving) based on data science methods that analyze large amounts of data. While computers can analyze facts within the data, they rely on human programming to define what pieces of data or what data types are important to include in the analysis to create a valid algorithm and model. The results are translated into information that health care providers can use to understand patterns and provide methods for predicting and preventing illness. If a health care provider is looking for ways to prevent heart disease, an accurate model might describe methods—like exercise, diet, and mindfulness practices—that can achieve that goal.

Algorithms and models have benefited the world by using special data science methods and techniques to understand patterns that guide clinical decisions, but identifying data used in their development still requires practitioners to be conscious of the results. Research has shown that algorithms and models can be misleading or biased if they do not account for population differences like gender, race, and age. These biases, also known as algorithmic fairness, can adversely affect the health of underserved populations by not giving individuals and health care providers information specific to and that directly addresses their diversity. An example of potential algorithm bias is creating an algorithm to treat hypertension without including variated treatments for women or considering life-related stress or the environment.

Researchers are focusing on methods to create fair and equitable algorithms and models to provide all populations with the best and most appropriate health care decisions. Researchers in our NLM Extramural Programs analyze this data through NLM funding opportunities that foster scientific inquiry so we better understand algorithmic effects on minority and marginalized populations. Some of those funding opportunities include NLM Research Grants in Biomedical Informatics and Data Science (R01 Clinical Trial Optional) and the NIH Research Project Grant (Parent R01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed).

NLM is interested in state-of-the-art methods and approaches to address problems using large health data sets and tools to analyze them. Specific areas of interest include:

  • Developing and testing computational or statistical approaches to apply to large or merged health data sets containing human and non-human data, with a focus on understanding and characterizing the gaps, errors, biases, and other limitations in the data or inferences based on the data.
  • Exploring approaches to correct these biases or compensate for missing data, including introducing debiasing techniques and policies or using synthetic data.
  • Testing new statistical algorithms or other computational approaches to strengthen research designs using specific types of biomedical and social/behavioral data.
  • Generating metadata that adequately characterizes the data, including its provenance, intended use, and processes by which it was collected and verified.
  • Improving approaches for integrating, mining, and analyzing health data in a way that preserves that data’s confidentiality, accuracy, completeness, and overall security.

These funding opportunities encourage inquiry into algorithmic fairness to improve health care for all individuals, especially those who are underserved. By using new research models that account for diverse populations, we will be able to provide data that will support the best treatment outcomes for everyone.

Dr. Hardy’s work and expertise focus on using health informatics to improve public health and health care decision-making. Dr. Hardy has held positions as a researcher and academician and is active in national informatics organizations. She has written and edited books on informatics and health care.

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