Guest post by Martha Meacham, MA, MLIS, NNLM Project Director
The NLM’s Network of the National Library of Medicine (NNLM) has a long, successful history of promoting access to and education about high quality health information, improving the health and health literacy of all. The COVID-19 pandemic may have changed how we approach our work, but our goals and successes have not changed. Adaptability, without sacrificing the quality and impact of our programs, is at our core. We’ve discovered new possibilities and engaged communities in new ways. These are just a few stories from across NNLM.
Even before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, NNLM had expertise conducting virtual programming due to the hundreds of events and classes offered each year. NNLM’s expertise was leveraged to expand our programming by transforming in-person events to virtual experiences, including virtual trainings, book clubs, and online symposiums addressing misinformation about COVID-19 — all with the goal of continuing to engage with communities.
Kiri Burcat, a Data and Evaluation Coordinator with the NNLM says, “NNLM was well-equipped for the COVID-19 work environment. With our regional/national collaborative model, we were used to video conferencing, long-distance collaboration, and online learning. While I hope to see my colleagues across the country in-person again soon, I also hope that this experience will lead us to experiment with different ways to keep online learning fresh and engaging.”
An attendee from one of NNLM’s virtual book club events shared how adapting to a virtual format provided different opportunities for the community, “I was at the Hood River Public Library and saw a book that caught my eye being given out at the COVID-safe space in the lobby. I learned about the upcoming author talk and the NNLM’s role in this effort. I was so impressed. I sent out a notice to my friends and encouraged them to join me in sharing the information on the book’s availability and the January 14th livestream event on Facebook and other social media to help reach more people. How inspirational! Thank you!”
Even with the restrictions of COVID-19, NNLM enabled its partners to continue their community outreach and engagement efforts. Cara Burton, System Director, Eastern Shore Public Library, Accomac, VA, highlighted, “The free print materials are very helpful in our outreach to poor, rural areas. For example, [NNLM-selected precision medicine] materials were distributed during COVID-19 in library packets at the public school free-meal pick-up sites. The NNLM staff did great outreach.”
NNLM coordinators across the country work closely with partners and member organizations to create and maintain high-quality work. “I have been incredibly inspired by the tenacity and innovation of our members who had to reinvent their organizations and services all at once to provide for their communities — and did so with excellence,” says Network Engagement Coordinator, Nancy Patterson.
The COVID-19 pandemic revealed opportunities for education on new topics and brought attention to needed skills. For example, a group within the NNLM organized a webinar series, Identifying and Combating Health Misinformation, featuring expert speakers who discussed various aspects of online health misinformation, how to identify it, and how to help curb its spread. After attending an event, one participant noted, “All of it was helpful. It will assist in better educating others on vaccines, the importance, and ways to know what is and what is not misleading information.” Another attendee noted that a benefit of the class was, “Learning about various ways misinformation can be spread. and learning about ways to stop the spread of misinformation.”
In another example of unique and timely programming, Liz Waltman, NNLM Outreach, Education, and Communications Coordinator notes, “The NNLM has had the opportunity to highlight the work our members are doing at this time. In particular, the webinar about evaluating information during COVID-19 was well attended and received.”
NNLM maintains its commitment to providing high quality educational and engagement opportunities for medical librarians and other professionals. Miso Lee, a data analyst with the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston, TX writes, “I am really grateful for [the] professional development award that allowed me to get the training I need. Second, I like informational webinars, particularly those related to COVID-19. I learned several creative ideas from other organizations.”
The resilience and adaptability of NNLM, founded on its unique expertise and experience, enabled this network of more than 8,000 academic health science libraries, hospital and public libraries, and community organizations to stretch, grow, and keep NLM relevant to communities, including medically underserved communities. Looking forward, NNLM will nurture the partnerships and approaches it has gained from this experience as it continues to expand and deepen NLM’s presence in communities across the country.
COVID-19 certainly has brought about changes and challenges, but through the great efforts of the NNLM staff and the wonderful work of its members and community partners, we remain strong and dedicated in these times.
Check out this upcoming series exploring the impact of COVID-19 and sign up here.
Martha Meacham is the Project Director of NNLM. Martha is a passionate advocate for improving the health of all through access to and understanding of health information.
Like most of the world, staff at NLM has been engaging with others through various technologies – video conferencing, virtual daily work huddles, and conference-inspired meetings that require screen sharing, virtual breakout rooms, chat features and instant messaging. I’ve gone from a 30-minute commute, including a short walk and a metro ride, to a 3-minute walk from my bedroom to my home office. Those lovely, long walks across the NIH campus that formed the bridges between meetings three or four times a day are now replaced by 60-second coffee refills between almost-non-stop video calls between 8 a.m. and 6 p.m. And where before I only had to make sure that I looked professional and polished, I must now make sure that there’s no clutter or distracting pictures or items in the background – the camera sees everything!
Fortunately for me, I regard meetings as a high art. For the past 15 years, meetings have been one of the main mechanisms through which I work. Early on I learned two great tips from a great biomedical informatics guru, John Glaser –
Never walk out of a meeting with more to do than you came in with, and never close a meeting without knowing who is taking the next steps on every item.
This comes in handy when your days are lived on camera! I can’t match the wisdom of John, but I can share some ideas that are proving helpful to me as I (virtually) meet with NIH colleagues, the NLM leadership team, individuals with whom I’m collaborating, and NLM staff through “brown bag” lunch sessions.
I’d like to share a few of my own tips garnered from my years of in-person and virtual meetings.
Call people by name, often.
This is particularly helpful if you are leading a meeting, for it acknowledges people and engages them in the moment. It is also important when you are a participant. Using names helps compensate for the lack of communication cues in video calls, such as eye contact and head nodding, and fosters engagement and stimulates participation.
Start on time and end on time.
I know I’m not the only one whose days are lived through conference calls and video chat. By starting and ending on time, you demonstrate respect for everyone on the call, as well as those in the prior and subsequent calls. In addition, it saves you from having to start every next call with the “sorry I was finishing up a previous call” apology.
Allow for pauses.
This is important for the leader of the meeting and is also equally relevant for participants. It can be difficult to pick up on visual and audio cues, gestures, and conversational threads, such as someone leaning back, leaning in, shifting their gaze, or changing their tone of voice. So, it becomes particularly important to let pauses stand an extra second or two to allow someone to come off mute or organize their thoughts.
Keep your camera on when possible.
Keeping your camera on provides visual evidence that you are present and attentive during the conversation and meeting discourse. It’s courteous to others, and yes, it does mean that you have to attend to the image being displayed, but it allows your colleagues to see that you’re not reading email or distracted by other issues. It also reinforces the connection between the speaker and the audience and enhances a sense of group engagement. Although some may worry about excessive bandwidth consumption, the social value is worth it!
Keep your microphone off unless speaking!
Visual cues are important; auditory cues are distracting. Until technology advances, microphones (mics) often create distortion, pick up background noise, contribute to audio feedback, and generally degrade the conversational experience. Remaining on mute signals respect for the speaker and gives them a non-competitive platform for discussion. It helps to learn the steps of muting and un-muting to keep up with the rhythm of the conversation.
Check your mic often and use a headset with a good mic.
Get to know your mic, how it works, and the indicators that it’s live. Poor audio quality can affect the experience of the video call for everyone. Many of us forget that the mic is on our laptop and the further away we are from the mic, the poorer the audio. I’ve found that using a headset helps because it puts the mic close to your mouth and will help minimize background noise. It is key to your personal happiness and professional survival that you make sure you know how to troubleshoot basic mic issues, particularly knowing when your mic is on, when it’s NOT on, and to stay alert so it’s never on when you don’t realize it!
Use chat features judiciously.
Most video conferencing software has some type of text support, usually called “chat.” I find this feature to be very useful when I’m NOT the speaker and very annoying when I am. Sometimes, in a big and exciting meeting, sidebar conversations held through the chat feature can provide clarification and enhance the shared experience. However, every thought appears on the screen and it can be distracting to the speaker. If you really want to chat your way through a video call, consider setting up a parallel channel in a different platform for that purpose or consult with your speaker beforehand. Your speakers will thank you!
Watch your backgrounds!
Video conferences introduce us to the private lives of our colleagues in ways never before anticipated, often by having the opportunity to look over the shoulder of your colleague and into their background. Some video conferencing platforms allow you to customize the image projected on your screen – a blessing and a bane. Remember that some backgrounds may best be left for personal calls with friends or family, and professional engagements do best with a more subdued background where the interest can focus on the person, not the background.
Many of the mental mechanisms we use in human discourse add meaning and interpretation to the words that are exchanged. We remember how a colleague smiled when bringing up a new idea, or the worried look when your words weren’t well understood. Note taking (I use a fountain pen and write in long hand) helps keep me focused during video calls, aids me in organizing thoughts, and often provides a reminder for the next meeting or conversation.
Take a break!
This tip is for you; not about using the technology. Technology is unrelenting and always demanding. The immediacy of work, the pull of people waiting for a meeting to begin, and our tendency to overschedule can lead to very packed days. As an industrial engineer with human factors training, I know that performance degrades over time and short breaks help! Schedule breaks – at least every two hours – even if only for five minutes. Take a walk, hug your child or someone you love, or start a load of laundry. The goal is to refocus and refresh!
What have you learned from 10 months of video conferencing? Please share your tips and ideas here – we are all in this together.
Guest post by Clem McDonald, MD, Chief Health Data Standards Officer at the National Library of Medicine
COVID-19 testing equips individuals with the information they need to protect themselves and others, and arms public health professionals with data that can inform response efforts.
Recently, leadership across NIH articulated why widespread testing is necessary, important, and achievable. Equally important is understanding the different types of testing available. As a leader and pioneer in the development of clinical data standards, NLM supports the electronic exchange of clinical health information data, including those related to COVID-19 testing, for approved purposes and with appropriate privacy protections.
Three types of testing are available to identify COVID-19 (the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus).
1) Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT), also called molecular tests, detect the virus’s genetic material;
2) Antigen tests detect parts of specific proteins produced by the virus; and
3) Antibody tests detect COVID-19 antibodies in the blood (serum) that infected people develop to fight off the virus.
NAAT tests are dependent upon a method used to multiply the relatively few copies of viral nucleic acid that might be present in a specimen into a very large number of copies — making it much easier detect the virus. At present, most NAAT tests use an amplification method called polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
PCR uses small segments of DNA, called primers, to pick out the DNA that it needs to multiply. The PCR instruments process the sample in repeated cycles of heating and cooling. During each cycle, the number of copies of the targeted nucleic acid doubles. From a few original copies, it can generate up to a billion new copies to make the virus easier to see in the final detection step.
The FDA recently authorized a different NAAT test method called loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). This test method warms the sample to a constant temperature and uses six different primers to drive the replication of different segments of the novel coronavirus’s genome. It does not require multiple cycles of heating and cooling. By many accounts, this method is faster and easier to use than real-time PCR. Other methods of COVID-19 detection are under development.
Different SARS-CoV-2 NAAT testing products target different parts of the virus, use different primers to start the PCR reaction, apply to different specimens, and differ in the ability to detect the virus.
The primary methods for collecting a sample are through nasal, throat, and saliva (spit). Nasopharyngeal (NP) samples are believed to be the most sensitive for detecting the virus, but pushing the swab through the nostril into the nasopharynx at the base of the skull can be uncomfortable. The collection of other samples from nasal swabs and saliva can be easier on the person being tested and are becoming increasingly accessible.
The spread of SARS-CoV-2 is particularly challenging to manage because people can be contagious and spread the infection to others, even before they begin to show symptoms. NAAT tests can sometimes detect the virus in early stages before symptoms appear, but not always, and do not necessarily turn positive immediately with the onset of symptoms.
One strategy with NAAT tests involves the use of pooled samples. Pooled sampling involves mixing several samples together in a batch, or pooled sample, then analyzing the pooled sample with a diagnostic test. If the test on the pooled specimen is negative, then all the individuals who contributed to the pool are considered negative for COVID-19. If the pooled sample is positive, the lab must run separate tests on each of the samples to determine who is positive and who is negative. When the prevalence of COVID-19 in a population is low (in the 1-2% range), the total number of tests needed is reduced, and an organization’s testing capacity increases.
Antigen tests for COVID-19 detect the presence of a protein that is part of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Today, the NP and mid-nasal samples are the primary sampling methods used for antigen testing, but the development of antigen tests for saliva are underway.
Antigen tests are relatively inexpensive and provide results almost immediately. These tests perform best in the early days after an infection begins. While they are not as sensitive as NAAT tests, some have suggested that repeated testing with a fast, although less sensitive test, may do more to help end the epidemic more quickly than perfect tests done infrequently.
Antibody SARS-CoV-2 tests detect the antibodies, or the “virus fighting proteins”, that a person’s immune system produces to fight infection. Antibody testing is generally done on the serum component of a blood sample. Antibodies may appear just a week or so after symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection appear. Antibody tests are not used to diagnose an active COVID-19 infection; however, they are useful for detecting whether someone has had a past infection.
Two different kinds of antibodies can be measured: IgM (immunoglobulin M) and IgG (immunoglobulin G). IgM antibodies appear early after infection (usually after the first week or so). Somewhat later, IgG antibodies, a more durable antibody, is produced. Today, there is no clear advantage of IGM or IgG antibody testing and not everyone will develop antibodies after a known COVID-19 infection. Importantly, scientists do not know how well or for how long antibody levels might protect someone against a future infection.
All three types of tests can be evaluated locally with a point-of-care (POC) machine or sent to laboratory for processing (in-lab testing). POC tests are carried out in close proximity to a patient and typically take 5-15 minutes, but only one or a handful of samples can be processed at a time. Not all POC machines have the capability to communicate electronically to public health and other reporting systems. In-lab testing machines can process hundreds of samples at time and, with the right safeguards, can deliver results electronically to patients, providers and public health reporting systems. However, in-lab testing has built-in delays due to its batch testing nature and the time it can take to deliver samples to laboratories.
There are many opportunities for innovation in testing methods to improve upon the efficiency, specificity, and scalability of currently available tests. Having a good set of well performing tests for SARS-CoV-2 is very important, but we also need to be able to deliver the results of such tests accurately and quickly (electronically) to the responsible care providers and to public health authorities.
To facilitate electronic delivery of such content, NLM has long supported the development of formal health care terminologies including LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes), RxNorm, along with SNOMED CT, and more recently, communication structures such as HL7 FHIR(R). These capabilities are especially important during this time of COVID-19. In the last six months, the FDA has authorized more than 80 SARS-CoV-2 test products for emergency use, the CDC has defined a COVID-19 Case Report Form, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services has specified content that should accompany every SARS-CoV-2 test. NLM-supported LOINC codes have been defined for all of this content, as well as SNOMED CT codes for coded test values. The FDA, CDC, and industry have produced a compendium of the all SARS-CoV-2 tests and their standard codes. The use of standardized test codes for test results is essential to smooth delivery of test results into electronic health records and for the aggregation of test results for research and public health purposes.
Testing for COVID-19 is important, safe, and easy. Getting tested early and often and following best practices, such as wearing a mask, washing hands often, and limiting social contact will help get us back to normal.
Did you learn something new about testing methods? How else can NLM help support testing activities?
Clem McDonald, MD, is the Chief Health Data Standards Officer at NLM. In this role, he coordinates standards efforts across NLM and NIH, including the FHIR interoperability standard and vocabularies specific to clinical care (LOINC, SNOMED CT, and RxNorm). Dr. McDonald developed one of the nation’s first electronic medical record systems and the first community-wide clinical data repository, the Indiana Network for Patient Care. Dr. McDonald previously served 12 years as Director of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications and as scientific director of its intramural research program.
Guest post by Susan Gregurick, PhD, associate director for data science and director of the Office of Data Science Strategy, National Institutes of Health.
There is an African proverb that says, “If you want to go fast, go alone. If you want to go far, go together.”
As I approach my first anniversary as the associate director for data science at NIH, this statement could not ring truer for me. By going together, NIH has made astonishing progress during this past year to enable more advanced data science, impressive data and computational infrastructure advances, and better FAIR data sharing.
Togetherness means collaboration that harnesses the power and strength of a diverse team. At NIH, women are using their expertise in data science and their teamwork skills to rapidly enable transformative programs.
“This is such an exciting time for innovation at the intersection of biomedical, medical, and technology domains. It’s dynamic and fast moving. Whether you have scientific skills, business expertise or know technology, there’s a role — an important role — for you in this space, especially here at NIH.”
I spoke with 11 women who are significantly impacting data science activities at NIH about how they enable data science; their advice for young, aspiring women data scientists; and the data science accomplishments that make them proud.
Collaboration and the role that NIH has played in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic were common themes in our discussions. These women also spoke about the importance of having a mentor, the four antidotes to challenging times, and the necessity of diverse perspectives.
I lead central fellowship programs to bring talented computer and data scientists to NIH. Our external outreach efforts encourage women and other minorities to apply for the programs we support. And, internally, we support engagement across NIH to place students in diverse positions.
Breaking down silos to advance data science.
Talented and driven staff across NIH have mobilized to lead implementation tactics under the strategic plan for data science, and we’ve built a forum for discussion in monthly town hall meetings. Most importantly, teams across NIH are working together and communicating widely to break down silos to continue advancing data science.
Teresa Zayas Cabán, PhD, Coordinator, Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) Acceleration, National Library of Medicine (NLM)
I’m leading efforts to enable the use of standardized clinical and research data sharing to advance discovery. We’re not only working collaboratively within NIH to advance data science, but also across departments, government offices, and the field itself. Together, we are leading the field in a new direction with the use in research, as appropriate, of the same standards used in health care.
Be confident in what you know.
Don’t sell yourself short — speak up about what you know. Find good mentors who can advise you and be in your corner throughout your career. Find a good cohort of colleagues to collaborate and commiserate with.
We all have varying perspectives and visions for data science. Nonetheless, we have become nuclei of the NIH data science community. Through our collaborations, we are emissaries for data science to extramural grantee communities. I see this as a concentric circle of expanding national and even global communities of data science.
Technical and sociocultural accomplishments in data science.
A sociocultural accomplishment is that many silos have been dismantled, and the willingness and readiness to collaborate are demonstrably strong. On the technical front, there are successful examples of progress toward an NIH data ecosystem, both at the foundational level and at the leading edge.
Lisa Federer, PhD, Data Science and Open Science Librarian, Office of Strategic Initiatives, NLM
Leads the NIH Data Science Training Committee
Be a lifelong learner.
Embrace lifelong learning — there’s always something new to learn! I’ve made it a priority to learn new things that I can bring to my work, including going back to school to get a PhD in information science with a focus on data science.
Open science practices advancing our understanding of COVID-19.
NIH has been doing impressive work in advancing our understanding of COVID-19 and has been a leader in making data related to SARS-CoV-2 widely available so that researchers around the world can help tackle this important issue. In the face of this global problem, open science practices will help us make progress toward therapies and vaccines more quickly.
Jennie Larkin, PhD, Deputy Director, Division of Neuroscience, National Institute on Aging
Engage and embed data science in different programs.
Ask questions, learn, and engage. We need more bright people who can bring new perspectives, expertise, and energy to data science and help embed data science in different research programs.
Working with the community to address the COVID-19 pandemic.
The increasing breadth and depth of data science expertise across NIH and the larger biomedical enterprise has allowed us to rapidly accomplish much more than was possible just a few years ago. We have seen the best of our community, in the willingness to come together to meet the challenge of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Rebecca Rosen, PhD, Program Lead, NIMH Data Archive and Senior Advisor, Office of Technology Development and Coordination, National Institute of Mental Health
Learn from traditional and nontraditional resources.
I encourage young women in all biomedical science fields to incorporate data science into their career development plans. Look for data science educational resources from both traditional and nontraditional sources and network within those sources.
Collaboration to realize a data ecosystem.
The NIH data ecosystem has an increasingly tangible presence. We have growing numbers of researchers analyzing data across NIH cloud-based platforms, thanks in part to the new Office of Data Science Strategy, the NIH STRIDES Initiative, and a greater level of collaboration across NIH Institutes and Centers.
Heidi Sofia, PhD, Program Director, National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)
Co-leads the Biomedical Information Science and Technology Initiative consortium and organized supplements to enhance software tools for open science (NOT-OD-20-073)
Beauty, awe, love, and humor.
I am never happier than when some brilliant young or established scientist in the community brings forward innovative, transformative science which I can endeavor to foster. In these instances, I find the first two of the four antidotes to our challenging times (beauty, awe, love, and humor). And my colleagues often provide the last one.
Use your power for good.
Among the first “computers” were women who performed the mathematical calculations needed to advance science, starting in 1757 in the search for Halley’s comet. Today, data science is a superpower for women in fields ranging from medicine to the natural sciences to business. So empower yourself, and use your power for good!
Maryam Zaringhalam, PhD, Data Science and Open Science Officer, Office of Strategic Initiatives, NLM
The lived experiences and perspectives of women — particularly women who are Black, Indigenous and People of Color (BIPOC); members of the LGBTQIA+ community; or members of the disability community — are critically important in ensuring that the products of data science have the greatest benefit for us all. Every chance I get, I tell women that they not only belong in data science, but that data science is better because of them.
Enabling researchers to make COVID-19 data available.
I was proud to be involved in quickly planning and organizing a joint NLM-ODSS webinar on sharing, discovering, and citing COVID-19 data and code using generalist repositories. It’s been inspiring to see the research community so eager to share the data and tools they’ve been generating, so this workshop felt like a timely and impactful contribution in support of researchers.
Valentina Di Francesco, MS, Lead Program Director, Computational Genomics and Data Science Program, NHGRI
Among the variety of projects I am involved in, I am particularly enthusiastic about the NIH Cloud Platform Interoperability Effort, which aims to establish and implement guidelines and technical standards to empower end-user analyses across participating cloud-based platforms established across NIH in order to facilitate the realization of a trans-NIH federated data ecosystem.
Data science is a science at NIH.
After many years at NIH, only recently have I noticed a solid appreciation of the essential contributions of the statistical, mathematical, and computer science approaches to better understand biological systems. Finally, data science is respected as a field at NIH! I can’t think of a better time to join the ranks of women data scientists in biomedical research.
Kim Pruitt, PhD, Chief, Information Engineering Branch, National Center for Biotechnology Information, NLM
Persevere, find a mentor, understand expectations, persevere.
My advice to someone entering this field is to persevere, to find an excellent mentor, to go into collaborations with a clear understanding of each member’s role and publication expectations, and to continually look for lessons learned when an analysis strategy fails (that is, cycle back to persevere).
Providing data access in the cloud
Providing access to data on the NIH STRIDES Initiative cloud-based platform is a prerequisite to supporting and growing the biomedical data science field. Most notable to me is the significant achievement of providing the complete Sequence Read Archive data (roughly 40 PB and growing) in two formats and ahead of the planned schedule.
Jennifer Couch, PhD, Chief, Structural Biology and Molecular Applications Branch, National Cancer Institute
NIH Citizen Science Coordinator
Bringing new approaches to biomedical research.
My focus is on bringing new, diverse, and often outsider perspectives, tools, approaches, and methods into the biomedical research space. Together with many talented colleagues and collaborators, I look for ways to bring new approaches to biomedical research. Sometimes that involves creating opportunities for different research communities to come together and find ways to collaborate.
On finding the right collaborators.
Hone your skills, don’t be afraid to try out new methods, and find collaborators with interesting questions who will know the answer when they see it. Find those collaborators who appreciate that your skills and insights are critical to your joint project’s success.
Dr. Gregurick leads the implementation of the NIH Strategic Plan for Data Science through scientific, technical, and operational collaborations with the Institutes, Centers, and offices that make up NIH. She has substantial expertise in computational biology, high-performance computing, and bioinformatics.
Guest post by Doug Joubert, head of User Services and the National Information Center on Health Services Research and Health Care Technology, National Library of Medicine.
NLM has a strong record of involving its stakeholders in the strategic decisions that drive the products we develop and the services we offer. As the world’s largest biomedical library, NLM is committed to thinking strategically about how we can promote discovery while supporting the 21st-century data, data science, and information needs of our diverse user community.
As we consider how to better address the needs of everyone who produces or uses health services research, we invite you to be part of the process by responding to this Request for Information (RFI).
Through this RFI, NLM is seeking input on future resource and program directions in support of information related to health services research, practice guidelines, and health technology, including technology assessment. Specifically, feedback is requested on the following:
Products that NLM currently offers in the areas of health services delivery or health services research
Information types necessary for organizations to successfully support health services research or public health
Tools, resources, or health services literature that are the most critical for NLM to collect or support
Any other comments that would enable NLM to support future work related to health services delivery or health services research
The health services research community is supported by NLM’s many databases, tools, and services, including PubMed and PubMed Central, Bookshelf, MedlinePlus, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Our Unified Medical Language System and clinical vocabulary and data standards resources are used by individuals in clinical research and health practice in the United States and globally. Through our intramural and extramural research and training investments in biomedical informatics, computational biology, and genomics, we are advancing projects that address real-world challenges in public health surveillance, opioid intervention, social determinants of health, and other domains. NLM also promotes the use and reuse of data for research and discovery from both research studies and clinical data sources through publicly available national health surveys, diagnostic images, administrative claims, and electronic health records.
At the core of NLM’s service model is meeting the information needs of all those who seek current and trusted biomedical information. To this end, NLM has continued to increase, refine, and evaluate the health services research resources of NICHSR. These efforts reflect the changing needs of users and the ways in which health services delivery is evaluated. Through our products, services, and programs, we continue to strive to support the information needs of researchers, clinicians, health care professionals, policymakers, librarians, and the public.
Doug Joubert is the head of Users Services and the and the product owner for the NLM Health Services Research product portfolio. He supports a team that provides research and information services to the public. He also supports the NLM Strategic Plan by leveraging NLM tools and services to facilitate the management of data throughout the entire lifecycle. Doug works collaboratively to develop and support data science training for NLM Reference and Web Services staff.