Celebrating National Nurses Day: Compassion. Expertise. Trust.

Tomorrow, we celebrate National Nurses Day! I salute my nurse colleagues who work tirelessly to provide compassionate, expert health care to patients with a wide array of health challenges, and I affirm that NLM stands with you.

I hope you can take a moment to absorb the outpouring of gratitude from around the world for the work you’ve been doing on the frontlines (and behind the scenes) in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. I hope you’ll extend those good thoughts to the other health professionals and support staff partners in your endeavors. I join my words and my heart to those expressions of thanks and pledge the resources of the National Library of Medicine in support.

While the Library can’t manufacture more time, fabricate personal protective equipment, or stand beside the bed of a patient in need, we can help nurses find freely accessible literature, such as this informative article on palliative care for COVID-19 patients in nursing homes, through PubMed and our full-text literature database, PubMed Central

And we know nurses are busy, so we’re accelerating access to the literature by creating special search strategies like LitCovid, a curated literature hub for tracking up-to-date scientific information about the 2019 novel coronavirus. LitCovid provides centralized access to over 9,000 relevant articles in PubMed. Articles are categorized by research topic and geographic location for improved access and are updated daily to ensure relevancy. Read more about it in the recent piece by Chen et al. in Nature and download the data here.

We also know that clinicians don’t have time to search widely for the information they need. So NLM is working with publishers and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy to create the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19), a collection of more than 59,000 (and growing) journal articles, abstracts, and preprints on the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In partnership with the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence, Oregon Health & Science University, and the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, NLM is launching a community-wide challenge to devise new strategies to make it easier for clinicians and, ultimately, everyone to efficiently access the literature to get up-to-the-minute answers.

NLM’s intramural researchers are engaged in building machine learning algorithms to assist in the rapid diagnosis of some of the clinical manifestations of COVID-19. An ensemble of machine learning algorithms has been trained to recognize bacterial and viral pneumonia opacifications (vague, fuzzy clouds of white in the darkness of a chest X-ray) from normal images and then further refine their own capability to differentiate COVID-19 from other viral pneumonias. This work, which has been ratified by three radiologists, can be quickly adapted for use in hospital and urgent care settings. And additional efforts are underway to provide predictive tracking and automated decision support for COVID-19 patients.

Through NLM’s National Network of Libraries of Medicine, we’re making sure that public libraries have access to the latest information about COVID-19. This supports nurses by providing community-level resources that raise awareness and inform the public about diagnosis and treatment. In a related effort, our New England Regional Medical Library recently offered a one-hour online class on strategies and resources to maintain sobriety during COVID-19 for individuals with substance use disorder and the people who support them, including nurses, who could earn continuing education credits.

Finally, NLM is working to make sure that the formal languages and terminologies used by nurses and others in the health care setting, such as LOINC, SNOMED CT, and RxNorm, include sufficient terms to correctly describe the COVID-19 patient experience and intervention. Through our Value Set Authority Center, a repository and authoring tool for public value sets (lists of codes and corresponding terms) that define clinical concepts to support effective and interoperable health information exchange, we’ve provided new COVID-19 value sets for use in quality monitoring and billing.

Compassion. Expertise. Trust.

I wonder if the creators of this tagline for National Nurses Day anticipated a world in such desperate need of compassion, expertise, and trust? How could they have envisioned the role that nurses would play in the patient journey through COVID-19? That a nurse would set up a video chat, so a new dad could be “present” at the birth of his child or a patient could say a final farewell? How could they have known that our nurse colleagues would need the support of all of us to face the daily professional challenges and personal risks of a global pandemic?

I am proud of the efforts of the NLM team to support nurses everywhere. We know we can’t stand in your place, but we hope that our work makes your job a little easier.

Virtual Learning Resources for Scientists at All Career Stages and of All Ages

Guest post by Jon R. Lorsch, PhD, director of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences

During this unprecedented time in our lives, we know that many of you are trying to teach or learn from home. To help meet your biomedical research training and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education needs, I invite you to explore some of the virtual education and training resources supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) at the National Institutes of Health.

For undergraduate and graduate students and faculty, we support several free, online teaching and learning resources: 

  • iBiology houses a collection of high-quality video lectures by scientists explaining cutting-edge research, the history of great discoveries, scientific career paths, and related topics. Complete courses are also available on subjects such as experimental design, microscopy, and image analysis, as are a number of whiteboard animations explaining specific scientific topics. iBiology also has resources for flipped courses and tips for moving courses online.
  • The National Research Mentoring Network is a platform designed to help undergraduates, graduate students, postdocs, and junior faculty advance their careers through online mentoring and networking activities.

For pre-K–12 students and teachers, we support a range of free and engaging virtual science offerings that align with the national STEM and/or English language arts (ELA) education standards: 

  • Pathways, a collaboration between NIGMS and Scholastic, includes student magazines with corresponding teaching guides, related lessons with interactive games, videos, and vocabulary lists. Current lessons cover basic science, regeneration, and circadian rhythms.
  • The Science Education Partnership Award(SEPA) teaching resources feature easy-to-access STEM and informal science education projects for pre-K through grade 12. The program provides tools such as apps, interactives, online books, curricula, lesson plans, and short movies. Students can learn about sleep, cells, growth, microbes, infectious diseases, healthy lifestyles, genetics, and many other subjects.
  • The Science Education page on the NIGMS website hosts a variety of articles, fact sheets, images, videos, and blog posts on basic science topics and science careers. 

NIGMS is committed to supporting and inspiring current and future scientists. Tell us how you’re using our virtual learning resources with the hashtag #NIGMSVirtualLearning! And email us at info@nigms.nih.gov to ask questions or share suggestions.

Dr. Lorsch oversees the National Institute of General Medical Sciences’ $2.9 billion budget, which supports basic research that increases understanding of biological processes and lays the foundation for advances in disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

Profiles in Science: Exploring Stories of Scientific Discovery

Guest post by NLM’s Jennifer Gilbert, Technical Services Division, Christie Moffatt, History of Medicine Division, and Doron Shalvi, Office of Computer and Communication Systems.

NLM’s widely appreciated online historical resource, Profiles in Science, makes available to researchers, educators, and members of the public the archival collections of prominent scientists, physicians, and other individuals who have advanced the scientific enterprise.

Profiles in Science presents the lives and work of these innovators in science, medicine, and public health through in-depth research, curation, and digitization of archival collection materials. NLM historians and archivists review and select documents from NLM’s world-renowned archives and modern manuscripts collection and the collections of collaborating institutions to make available the histories of biomedical innovation and provide direct access to supporting primary sources.

Through Profiles in Science, everyone can learn about stories such as the race to decipher the genetic code, the development of the APGAR score to assess the health of newborns, and the discovery of vitamin C.

To create more opportunities for innovative uses, this online archive of more than 30,000 digitized letters, draft manuscripts, photographs, diaries, and more migrated to a new platform recently.

The new platform for Profiles in Science, integrated with NLM Digital Collections, supports increased functionality for worldwide public access to, engagement with, and sharing of these data-rich archival collections.

Screen shot of NLM Profiles in Science website
Profiles in Science homepage, providing access to unique primary source materials and accompanying biographical narrative texts from over 40 manuscript collections on topics in the history of science, medicine, and public health.

This relaunch of the Profiles in Science platform is the culmination of more than two years of highly collaborative work, the initial phase of which was supported in part by the Michael E. DeBakey Medical Foundation. A multidisciplinary team of archivists, computer scientists, developers, historians, and librarians from across NLM worked together to migrate metadata and digitize items from a homegrown custom system developed and maintained since the 1990s to open-source, community-designed and supported software for long-term management as part of NLM’s digital repository infrastructure. 

Profiles in Science items are now described in ArchivesSpace, stored in NLM’s Digital Repository, and accessible to the public in a brand-new interface using Spotlight, an open-source software solution developed by Stanford University. Profiles content is also available now in NLM’s Digital Collections, where it can be explored alongside other publicly available digital content, including books, films, prints, photographs, and manuscripts.

Migration of the Profiles in Science system to an open-source stack integrated with NLM’s Digital Collections.

Migrating Profiles in Science supports NLM’s strategic goals of reaching more people in more ways, accelerating discovery, modernizing the Library’s collections and services, and enhancing the integration and interoperability of existing collections.

With new tools to manage its collections, Profiles in Science will continue to be a platform for innovation. NLM staff will continue their productive collaborations as they develop and test new workflows for making content available and build connections with other resources within and outside of NLM. We are also excited to add newly digitized content to highlight the diversity of individuals and roles in the history of science and medicine (learn more about our development policy). 

We look forward to reaching more audiences, exploring tools that facilitate computational research, crowdsourcing annotation and transcription, and more — all to better serve NLM audiences in their use of these materials in innovative ways. If you haven’t already explored Profiles in Science, we welcome you to visit the site and share your feedback.

Left to right: Jennifer Gilbert works in NLM’s Technical Services Division. She is a Senior Technical Information Specialist and Chair of the Digital Repository Working Group. Christie Moffatt works in NLM’s History of Medicine Division. She is an archivist and manager of the NLM Digital Manuscripts Program. Doron Shalvi, works for GDIT in NLM’s Office of Computer and Communication Systems. He is a systems architect of NLM’s Digital Collections.
Left to right: Jennifer Gilbert works in NLM’s Technical Services Division. She is a Senior Technical Information Specialist and Chair of the Digital Repository Working Group. Christie Moffatt works in NLM’s History of Medicine Division. She is an archivist and manager of the NLM Digital Manuscripts Program. Doron Shalvi, works for GDIT in NLM’s Office of Computer and Communication Systems. He is a systems architect of NLM’s Digital Collections.

The New World Ahead

Each of us is experiencing the world in a whole new way. New work practices, new modes of engaging with family and friends, new worries, and new approaches to practicing healthy habits.

During this time, the lines between the many roles we play in our day-to-day lives may be blurring. I straddle many roles — director of the leading center of research in computational health and the world’s largest biomedical library, manager, mother, engineer, daughter, friend, researcher, nurse. Each one offers different insights on how I’m coping with what is happening now and what lies ahead. And I’d like to believe that every role I play in life informs and enriches the others, helping me better meet the challenges and demands of each of them.

At the forefront for me these days is my role as a nurse and how it has helped me transform the disruption of the pandemic into one of the most meaningful periods of my life and career.

I’ve told you before that nursing is fundamentally the diagnosis and treatment of the human response to disease, disability, and developmental challenges. There are several theoretical frameworks that help nurses diagnose and treat this human response. One that has particular meaning to my life and career is the work of Dorothea Orem, who developed the Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing. Her theory asserts that all individuals face self-care challenges, and every individual has some amount of self-care agency, that is, the skill to initiate or perform the health activities needed to maintain life, health, and well-being.

Nursing steps in when there is a discrepancy between what an individual needs to do to be healthy and the ability of that person to engage in the self-care behaviors necessary to be healthy. A key nursing intervention focuses on creating an environment that supports development.

I’ve also shared how I integrate a focus on the environment into my research. My work using virtual reality allows me to design and experiment with environments that encourage health. To Orem, the environment is a powerful tool that, if properly arranged, can support the actions that an individual needs to take in order to live in as healthful a manner as possible.

One of the biggest shifts during this time has been in our relationship with the environment around us, specifically, public spaces, buildings and offices, and other sites of social interaction.

Some of us who can continue working are unable to go to our usual place of work, thus the environment of work merges with the environment of everyday living. This requires acknowledgment and adaption, such as setting aside space in your home that is just for work. Another adjustment involves re-creating, through phone calls, web chats, and other virtual means, the social environment of work. Environments for physical activity and relaxation have been affected, too. No more going to the gym or meeting friends for softball — we’re finding different ways to move our bodies without getting too close to others!

This new environment of living and working alters more than the ways we work and play. It can change family dynamics, induce a sense of comfort or isolation, and scramble the visual cues that keep us on track throughout the day.

Perhaps, like me, you’ve set up a workspace that makes room for meaningful objects, such as a picture of a loved one or a favorite pen. Maybe you’ve transitioned your work to home with a computer, calendar, or whiteboard that keeps you engaged and on task. Certainly, so many of us have had to learn new meanings of the environments we inhabit.

I believe that we will return to working in our workplaces — but we will be shaped and transformed by this period of our lives.

Look around your environment now. What aspects of this place and space will you bring to the next phase of your work? How will you be inspired by the strength and creativity you’re currently drawing on while working in this new environment? I look forward to hearing your thoughts.

Answering the Call: Academic Health Sciences Libraries and COVID-19

Guest post by members of a large collaborative network of academic health sciences libraries

The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting public health crisis have had a profound impact, reshaping patient care, training, research, learning, and community engagement across academic medicine. Academic health sciences libraries are answering an urgent call to implement the virtual library as an extension of our embedded and integrated roles on campus. The closure of physical spaces during this time highlights the critical role of the virtual services, resources, and training provided by libraries and has accelerated the maturation of many remote resources and services to support and advance institutional missions of research, patient care, education, innovation, and public health.

Academic health sciences libraries are leveraging electronic collections and services and quickly pivoting to meet users’ needs in a variety of ways. Here are some of the actions libraries are taking in the areas of clinical care, education, research, resources, and outreach:

Clinical Care

  • Curating information resources to support health care providers who are transitioning to the front line in preparation for a surge in hospitalizations, including retirees reentering the workforce to care for patients
  • Providing comprehensive searching for evidence-based information on topics such as personal protective equipment, commonly referred to as “PPE,” sanitization and reuse to help safeguard frontline health care providers
  • Providing rapid evidence searching and synthesis services to support the treatment of high-risk patients and specialty care areas, in addition to informing clinical management decisions and public safety
  • Developing guidelines and providing government information on recommendations for the production of PPE face masks using 3-D printing capacity in library-based collaborative “maker-spaces” to align closely with institutional efforts to supply equipment for health care workers 


  • Designing COVID-19 instruction modules and elective courses in partnership with medical education faculty
  • Integrating digital content, including alternatives to print materials, into the evolving online learning environment
  • Facilitating access to online medical education resources to support students preparing for board exams or engaged in clerkships
  • Advancing health literacy by teaching students to communicate effectively with patients and caregivers


  • Creating online learning opportunities in data analysis, visualization, programming, research impact, and more to support and enhance research activities
  • Collaborating with researchers on conducting data analysis, writing for publication, and preparing grant applications during the hiatus of nonessential laboratory work
  • Providing training and consultation services to users on data collection and collaboration via electronic lab notebooks, data collection tools, institutional repositories, and other digital platforms


  • Maintaining electronic interlibrary loan services through a robust digital network
  • Managing access to peer-reviewed literature to support patient care and emerging research
  • Aggregating and curating COVID-19 resources to help people stay current with the latest articles, rapid reviews, and guidelines and to orient users to critical datasets and analytical tools
  • Negotiating with publishers for temporary expanded access to online content


  • Reaching out to populations outside our own institutions to address global health issues
  • Identifying and promoting open-access resources to help providers and community groups
  • Curating consumer health web resources to point the public to authoritative sources of information
  • Providing online wellness activities for our communities

While physically separated, we are working to create stronger bonds among ourselves, connecting with colleagues across the nation and around the world to support one another. The interconnected and collegial nature of our profession is well established, with libraries and librarians enjoying a long history of strong professional networks and collaboration. Our professional associations, including the Regional Medical Libraries of the NLM-supported National Network of Libraries of Medicine, the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries, and the Medical Library Association and its regional Chapters, have been instrumental in cultivating and fostering these networks through regular communications, member support tools, and professional development opportunities. Our networks continue to be a vital foundation for our work and serve to connect us as we share, support, and address urgent information needs.

We acknowledge the toll this crisis is taking. We value the significant and substantial efforts we are engaged in to support and care for ourselves, our families, and our communities during this difficult time. As we continue forward, we offer these thoughts:

To researchers, students, and administrators: Connect with your librarians to establish new partnerships in the creation, collection, and sharing of knowledge. Look to the library for new strategies to advance learning, teaching, and research. Whether on our campuses or virtually, academic health sciences libraries foster health literacy, evidence-based practice, public access, and the creation and sharing of knowledge, while supporting the advancement of state-of-the-art patient care, research, education, and public health — far beyond what you may perceive as traditional library services.

To our colleagues: The current crisis, with its constant demands and urgent requirements, underscores the unquestionable value of librarians in the discovery, creation, and management of knowledge. Your professionalism and proactive innovation are both inspiring and impactful as we work together to address rapidly evolving information needs while developing and maturing critical services, resources, and training.

We celebrate the tremendous achievement by health sciences libraries to pivot to a fully online environment while providing largely uninterrupted access to resources and to valuable services and support during the COVID-19 pandemic. The examples above, and many more not included here, demonstrate the diverse ways that health sciences libraries are stepping up in the face of the current situation, and how libraries will continue to evolve and develop new solutions to meet information challenges.

Row 1 (left to right):
Marisa Conte, MLIS, Associate Director, Research and Informatics, Taubman Health Sciences Library, University of Michigan
John Gallagher, MLS, Director, Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library, Yale University
Kristi L. Holmes, PhD, Director, Galter Health Sciences Library and Learning Center and Associate Professor of Preventive Medicine-Health and Biomedical Informatics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Janice M. Jaguszewski, MSLIS, Associate University Librarian and Director, Health Sciences Libraries, University of Minnesota 

Row 2 (left to right):
Barbara Kern, MLIS, Director, Sciences and Social Sciences and Director, John Crerar Library, The University of Chicago
Melissa L. Rethlefsen, MSLS, AHIP, Associate Dean, George A. Smathers Libraries and Fackler Director, Health Science Center Libraries, University of Florida
Anne K. Seymour, MS, Director, Welch Medical Library and Assistant Professor of Health Sciences Informatics, Johns Hopkins University