MedlinePlus Connect: 10 Years of Linking Electronic Health Records to Consumer Health Information

Guest post by Jennifer Jentsch, MLS, Project Manager, MedlinePlus Connect, National Library of Medicine

NLM is celebrating the 10th anniversary of MedlinePlus Connect, a free service that links electronic health records (EHRs), patient portals, and other health IT systems to relevant, authoritative, and up-to-date health information from NLM’s MedlinePlus health information resource and other NIH websites. A look back over the past 10 years highlights opportunities that came together to create this successful NLM resource.

Development of MedlinePlus Connect

We know that having access to information empowers people. When it comes to a person’s health, information is fundamental in helping people learn about their conditions, medications, and treatment options, and helps them make more informed decisions about their health. We also know that to facilitate this understanding, health care professionals need to point the people they treat to trusted, accurate health information that is easy to understand. Quality information is an essential component of quality health care.

With the release of the MedlinePlus and MedlinePlus en español websites in the late 1990s, NLM quickly became a trusted source of quality online health information for the public. A decade later, a new health information need began to emerge. Health care providers were rapidly transitioning from paper health records to EHRs. The EHR system itself became a new platform for the delivery of health education, where both patients and providers could easily access explanatory resources about a diagnosis, medication or medical test. The sharing of trusted health information between provider and patient was migrating to an entirely electronic, yet personalized, environment.

In these emerging EHR systems, NLM saw an opportunity to leverage the rich resources of MedlinePlus and serve the public in a new way.   

The idea became reality with the launch of MedlinePlus Connect in 2010. NLM used the expertise of staff in data science, medical code systems, health data standards, and information technology to build this innovative service. The team created an Application Programming Interface (API) to seamlessly bring the rich consumer health resources of the MedlinePlus and MedlinePlus en español websites directly into EHRs. Tens of thousands of pages about diseases and conditions, medications and lab tests were now accessible for use in a new way. 

How It Works

MedlinePlus Connect is a free web application and web service that does not require registration to use. It works by accepting specific requests from EHR systems in a customized HTTPS format and responds with links to relevant information.

In the course of patient care, health care professionals assign medical codes for particular diagnoses, tests, procedures, and medications to the health records of patients. MedlinePlus Connect uses these codes to provide patient-specific health information to the EHR system.

As part of NLM’s commitment to health data standards, MedlinePlus Connect uses standard medical code systems like SNOMED and LOINC, and adheres to the Infobutton standard. To facilitate the connection with EHRs, NLM staff create “mappings” (or associations) between MedlinePlus content and standard medical coding systems used in EHRs. Today, MedlinePlus Connect supports half a dozen major code systems for diagnoses, medications, procedures, and medical tests, including ICD-9-CM, ICD-10-CM, SNOMED, and RxNorm.

MedlinePlus Connect Today and into the Future

Since its launch, MedlinePlus Connect has been employed by a wide array of users, including large and small EHR systems, health care networks and organizations, hospital systems, and mobile applications. The API has grown significantly in usage, in content, and in code mappings. (See our timeline infographic for important developments over the past 10 years.)

See how MedlinePlus Connect has grown over the past 10 years.    Image credit: Brenna Cox

Today, MedlinePlus Connect provides a robust service that can easily respond to more than 171,000 medical codes with relevant health information.  In 2020, MedlinePlus Connect received 252 million code requests from external systems.

An exciting new initiative is the integration of consumer health information from other NIH Institutes and Centers (ICs). In 2018, MedlinePlus Connect piloted a collaboration with the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. The success of this collaboration led to the participation of two additional NIH Institutes: the National Institute on Aging and the National Cancer Institute . NLM is working with other NIH ICs in this effort to expand the scope of content in MedlinePlus Connect.

The next major development will be the addition of Current Procedural Terminology (CPT®) codes from the American Medical Association to expand access to information about medical procedures.

As MedlinePlus Connect enters a new decade, we can’t help but reflect on how the goals behind the service remain very much the same as they were when this service launched:  to deliver health information to the public in new and innovative ways, to reduce barriers in information access, and to support quality health care everywhere.

Interested in learning how to implement MedlinePlus Connect?  Read our documentation and contact us with questions. Sign up for the MedlinePlus Connect email list to keep up with developments and exchange ideas with other users.

Jennifer Jentsch, MLS, joined NLM in 2001 and has supported a variety of NLM health information products including PubMed, PubMed Central, and MedlinePlus. Since 2014 she has served as Project Manager for MedlinePlus Connect.

DOCLINE: Connecting Medical Libraries for 35 Years

Guest post by Lisa Theisen, Head of NLM’s Collection Access Section and Elisabeth (Lis) Unger, NLM DOCLINE Team Lead

It’s been 35 years since NLM’s interlibrary loan (ILL) request routing system, DOCLINE®, was launched with a goal of enabling medical libraries to get biomedical literature into the hands of people who need it as efficiently and quickly as possible. Today, DOCLINE continues to be used daily by nearly 2,000 hospital, academic, military, public, and other libraries that place approximately one million requests a year, including requests for newly published research not freely available online.

DOCLINE’s foundation and success stems from NLM’s collaboration with the Regional Medical Libraries of the Network of the National Library of Medicine (NNLM) to support resource sharing among the medical library community. Resource sharing through ILL means that participating libraries don’t have to own as many books and journals or collect as broad a range of topics because they can borrow from each other. Full participation is limited to libraries in the NNLM and Canada, but some international libraries use the system to place requests directly with NLM.

DOCLINE service is fast and use of the system is free. This service allows a wide range of libraries, including hospital libraries (which account for 60% of DOCLINE participants), to obtain articles for their patrons that are not in their own collections.

This is where DOCLINE fills a critical gap by connecting a wide network of librarians who are always ready to help each other out, often without charge. Without DOCLINE, access to literature outside of a library’s collection is severely curtailed.

When DOCLINE first launched on mainframe computers in 1985, finding a ‘copy’ of an article or a library with the right issue of a print journal was not as easy as performing a simple search online. If you had a modem and access to an NLM account, you might check SERHOLD, the NLM database of medical libraries’ serial holdings – or journal titles libraries report subscribing to. Then you could mail, or maybe fax, an ILL form to the library and request that they mail your library a photocopy of the article. 

Over the decades, DOCLINE evolved in response to technological advancements and user needs. Features and enhancements have been added to DOCLINE throughout the years to make the system faster and easier to use. DOCLINE has grown to include new ways to send copies of articles, such as emailing PDFs, and adapted to new ways that publishers offer content, including electronic journals and “epub ahead of print” articles found in NLM’s PubMed biomedical literature citation database, and borrowers now see alerts to free, full-text articles found in NLM’s PubMed Central (PMC) digital archive.

Around the turn of the century, DOCLINE 1.0 moved to the world wide web – at the same time email use was becoming more widespread. In 2003, DOCLINE 2.0 was released with a new user-friendly look and feel; in 2006 it was updated to allow a library to indicate “Urgent Patient Care” to expedite service for use in emergencies in the hospital setting. The latest version, DOCLINE 6.0, debuted in November 2018. The three core system components, 1) the user library records, 2) their collective biomedical journal listings, and 3) ILL requests, would still be familiar to a user of the original system, even though the website looks very different today. DOCLINE also includes indicators for supplementary data sets and journal embargoes which didn’t exist in its early days.

What made DOCLINE remarkable in 1985 and remains its most intricate, complex feature, is the efficient way in which requests are automatically matched to appropriate lenders based on their reported journal holdings. This ensures that DOCLINE’s average length of time to fill a request and the percentage of filled requests continues to be high compared to other ILL systems – advancing NLM’s mission of enabling biomedical research and supporting health care and public health. This means that clinicians who rely on medical librarians to obtain the most relevant and latest research articles cited in PubMed, for instance on COVID-19 treatments, can rely on DOCLINE.

Continued updates to DOCLINE underscore the commitment to advance NLM’s strategic goals to reach more people in more ways through enhanced dissemination and engagement, and to engage a wide range of audiences to ensure the “right information gets delivered to them at the right time.” For instance, in April of this year, a ‘Print Resources Available’ filter was added to the system to enable user librarians working remotely from home to connect with libraries that still had access to their physical collection.

In its 35-year history, over 65 million ILL requests have been completed by libraries using DOCLINE. NLM is proud to provide the system and values the work of libraries that generously and unflaggingly share with one another, making DOCLINE a system that has been widely embraced by the user community over the years. We are looking forward to what the next 35 years mean for DOCLINE – teleporting articles anyone?

Are you a part of the DOCLINE community? How has ILL helped you?

Lisa Theisen began serving as Head of the Collection Access Section in the Public Services Division in March 2020. Ms. Theisen has been at NLM for 13 years, supporting DOCLINE and NLM’s Interlibrary Loan (ILL) operation.

Elisabeth Unger, MLIS, joined NLM’s Public Access Division, Collection Access Section, Systems Unit in 2008 to support DOCLINE and NLM ILL after working at the National Agricultural Library. In 2005 she became DOCLINE Team Lead where she was responsible for the latest redesign and relaunch of the esteemed system.

The Science of SARS-CoV-2 Testing: What Tests Are Available and What This May Mean for You

Guest post by Clem McDonald, MD, Chief Health Data Standards Officer at the National Library of Medicine

COVID-19 testing equips individuals with the information they need to protect themselves and others, and arms public health professionals with data that can inform response efforts.

Recently, leadership across NIH articulated why widespread testing is necessary, important, and achievable. Equally important is understanding the different types of testing available. As a leader and pioneer in the development of clinical data standards, NLM supports the electronic exchange of clinical health information data, including those related to COVID-19 testing, for approved purposes and with appropriate privacy protections.

Three types of testing are available to identify COVID-19 (the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus).

1) Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT), also called molecular tests, detect the virus’s genetic material;

2) Antigen tests detect parts of specific proteins produced by the virus; and

3) Antibody tests detect COVID-19 antibodies in the blood (serum) that infected people develop to fight off the virus.


NAAT tests are dependent upon a method used to multiply the relatively few copies of viral nucleic acid that might be present in a specimen into a very large number of copies — making it much easier detect the virus. At present, most NAAT tests use an amplification method called polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

PCR uses small segments of DNA, called primers, to pick out the DNA that it needs to multiply. The PCR instruments process the sample in repeated cycles of heating and cooling. During each cycle, the number of copies of the targeted nucleic acid doubles. From a few original copies, it can generate up to a billion new copies to make the virus easier to see in the final detection step.

The FDA recently authorized a different NAAT test method called loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). This test method warms the sample to a constant temperature and uses six different primers to drive the replication of different segments of the novel coronavirus’s genome. It does not require multiple cycles of heating and cooling. By many accounts, this method is faster and easier to use than real-time PCR. Other methods of COVID-19 detection are under development.  

Different SARS-CoV-2 NAAT testing products target different parts of the virus, use different primers to start the PCR reaction, apply to different specimens, and differ in the ability to detect the virus.

The primary methods for collecting a sample are through nasal, throat, and saliva (spit). Nasopharyngeal (NP) samples are believed to be the most sensitive for detecting the virus, but pushing the swab through the nostril into the nasopharynx at the base of the skull can be uncomfortable. The collection of other samples from nasal swabs and saliva can be easier on the person being tested and are becoming increasingly accessible.

The spread of SARS-CoV-2 is particularly challenging to manage because people can be contagious and spread the infection to others, even before they begin to show symptoms. NAAT tests can sometimes detect the virus in early stages before symptoms appear, but not always, and do not necessarily turn positive immediately with the onset of symptoms.

One strategy with NAAT tests involves the use of pooled samples. Pooled sampling involves mixing several samples together in a batch, or pooled sample, then analyzing the pooled sample with a diagnostic test. If the test on the pooled specimen is negative, then all the individuals who contributed to the pool are considered negative for COVID-19. If the pooled sample is positive, the lab must run separate tests on each of the samples to determine who is positive and who is negative. When the prevalence of COVID-19 in a population is low (in the 1-2% range), the total number of tests needed is reduced, and an organization’s testing capacity increases.


Antigen tests for COVID-19 detect the presence of a protein that is part of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Today, the NP and mid-nasal samples are the primary sampling methods used for antigen testing, but the development of antigen tests for saliva are underway.

Antigen tests are relatively inexpensive and provide results almost immediately. These tests perform best in the early days after an infection begins. While they are not as sensitive as NAAT tests, some have suggested that repeated testing with a fast, although less sensitive test, may do more to help end the epidemic more quickly than perfect tests done infrequently.


Antibody SARS-CoV-2 tests detect the antibodies, or the “virus fighting proteins”, that a person’s immune system produces to fight infection. Antibody testing is generally done on the serum component of a blood sample. Antibodies may appear just a week or so after symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection appear. Antibody tests are not used to diagnose an active COVID-19 infection; however, they are useful for detecting whether someone has had a past infection.

Two different kinds of antibodies can be measured: IgM (immunoglobulin M) and IgG (immunoglobulin G). IgM antibodies appear early after infection (usually after the first week or so). Somewhat later, IgG antibodies, a more durable antibody, is produced. Today, there is no clear advantage of IGM or IgG antibody testing and not everyone will develop antibodies after a known COVID-19 infection. Importantly, scientists do not know how well or for how long antibody levels might protect someone against a future infection.

If you’re trying to picture antibodies, here’s some help. Imagine these helping to fight off disease.

All three types of tests can be evaluated locally with a point-of-care (POC) machine or sent to laboratory for processing (in-lab testing). POC tests are carried out in close proximity to a patient and typically take 5-15 minutes, but only one or a handful of samples can be processed at a time. Not all POC machines have the capability to communicate electronically to public health and other reporting systems. In-lab testing machines can process hundreds of samples at time and, with the right safeguards, can deliver results electronically to patients, providers and public health reporting systems. However, in-lab testing has built-in delays due to its batch testing nature and the time it can take to deliver samples to laboratories.

There are many opportunities for innovation in testing methods to improve upon the efficiency, specificity, and scalability of currently available tests. Having a good set of well performing tests for SARS-CoV-2 is very important, but we also need to be able to deliver the results of such tests accurately and quickly (electronically) to the responsible care providers and to public health authorities.

To facilitate electronic delivery of such content, NLM has long supported the development of formal health care terminologies including LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes), RxNorm, along with SNOMED CT, and more recently, communication structures such as HL7 FHIR(R). These capabilities are especially important during this time of COVID-19. In the last six months, the FDA has authorized more than 80 SARS-CoV-2 test products for emergency use, the CDC has defined a COVID-19 Case Report Form, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services has specified content that should accompany every SARS-CoV-2 test. NLM-supported LOINC codes have been defined for all of this content, as well as SNOMED CT codes for coded test values. The FDA, CDC, and industry have produced a compendium of the all SARS-CoV-2 tests and their standard codes. The use of standardized test codes for test results is essential to smooth delivery of test results into electronic health records and for the aggregation of test results for research and public health purposes.

Testing for COVID-19 is important, safe, and easy. Getting tested early and often and following best practices, such as wearing a mask, washing hands often, and limiting social contact will help get us back to normal.

Did you learn something new about testing methods? How else can NLM help support testing activities?

Clem McDonald, MD, is the Chief Health Data Standards Officer at NLM. In this role, he coordinates standards efforts across NLM and NIH, including the FHIR interoperability standard and vocabularies specific to clinical care (LOINC, SNOMED CT, and RxNorm). Dr. McDonald developed one of the nation’s first electronic medical record systems and the first community-wide clinical data repository, the Indiana Network for Patient Care. Dr. McDonald previously served 12 years as Director of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications and as scientific director of its intramural research program.

A 21st-Century Approach to Health Services Research: NLM Moves Forward with You in Mind

Guest post by Doug Joubert, head of User Services and the National Information Center on Health Services Research and Health Care Technology, National Library of Medicine.

NLM has a strong record of involving its stakeholders in the strategic decisions that drive the products we develop and the services we offer. As the world’s largest biomedical library, NLM is committed to thinking strategically about how we can promote discovery while supporting the 21st-century data, data science, and information needs of our diverse user community.

Looking forward

As we consider how to better address the needs of everyone who produces or uses health services research, we invite you to be part of the process by responding to this Request for Information (RFI).

Through this RFI, NLM is seeking input on future resource and program directions in support of information related to health services research, practice guidelines, and health technology, including technology assessment. Specifically, feedback is requested on the following:

  • Products that NLM currently offers in the areas of health services delivery or health services research
  • Information types necessary for organizations to successfully support health services research or public health
  • Tools, resources, or health services literature that are the most critical for NLM to collect or support
  • Any other comments that would enable NLM to support future work related to health services delivery or health services research

Taking stock

The health services research community is supported by NLM’s many databases, tools, and services, including PubMed and PubMed Central, Bookshelf, MedlinePlus, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Our Unified Medical Language System and clinical vocabulary and data standards resources are used by individuals in clinical research and health practice in the United States and globally. Through our intramural and extramural research and training investments in biomedical informatics, computational biology, and genomics, we are advancing projects that address real-world challenges in public health surveillance, opioid intervention, social determinants of health, and other domains. NLM also promotes the use and reuse of data for research and discovery from both research studies and clinical data sources through publicly available national health surveys, diagnostic images, administrative claims, and electronic health records. 

Since the early 1990s, with the establishment of the National Information Center on Health Services Research and Health Care Technology (NICHSR), NLM has developed a number of specialized information resources targeting producers and users of health services research. These specialized resources were designed to address some of the challenges of finding and accessing credible and authoritative health services research information.

At the core of NLM’s service model is meeting the information needs of all those who seek current and trusted biomedical information. To this end, NLM has continued to increase, refine, and evaluate the health services research resources of NICHSR. These efforts reflect the changing needs of users and the ways in which health services delivery is evaluated. Through our products, services, and programs, we continue to strive to support the information needs of researchers, clinicians, health care professionals, policymakers, librarians, and the public.

We hope you’ll take the time to share your expertise and vision for health services research information at NLM so that our NICHSR can continue evolving to meet your needs. We can’t wait to hear from you!

Doug Joubert is the head of Users Services and the and the product owner for the NLM Health Services Research product portfolio. He supports a team that provides research and information services to the public. He also supports the NLM Strategic Plan by leveraging NLM tools and services to facilitate the management of data throughout the entire lifecycle. Doug works collaboratively to develop and support data science training for NLM Reference and Web Services staff.

Why Testing is the Key to Getting Back to Normal

This piece was authored in collaboration with the leadership across NIH and represents a unified effort to meet the challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic with excellence and innovation.

One thing we know for sure – every single person can help our country control the COVID-19 pandemic. From wearing a mask to washing your hands to maintaining physical distance and avoiding large indoor gatherings, each of us can follow proven public health practices that not only reduce our own chance of getting infected by SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes coronavirus disease, or COVID-19), but also prevent the spread of COVID-19 to our coworkers, friends and loved ones. Another thing that will help is testing as many people as possible.  

Testing for COVID-19 is so important that in April 2020, the NIH launched the Rapid Acceleration of Diagnostics (RADx) Initiative to develop rapid, easy-to-use, accurate testing and make it available nationwide. As part of this effort, the RADx Underserved Populations (RADx-UP) program is about finding solutions to stop the spread of COVID-19, particularly among racial and ethnic minorities, and other vulnerable populations that have been disproportionately affected by this pandemic. Previously, we reported about the launch of this project and our plans to develop community-based approaches to study how best to implement testing and prevention strategies for populations who are disproportionately affected by, have the highest infection rates of, or are most at risk for complications or poor outcomes from COVID-19.

Scientists from the NIH and across the country are working around the clock to establish programs that will ensure access to and acceptance of rapid and reliable testing around the country. Testing can help people determine if they are infected with SARS-CoV-2 – regardless of whether they have symptoms – and whether they are at risk of spreading the infection to others. Taking measures to prevent the spread of infection will be the most effective strategy for getting us safely back to work and school.

We want to take this opportunity to articulate why widespread testing is necessary, important, and achievable.

  1. Testing saves lives

Testing of all people for SARS-CoV-2, including those who have no symptoms, who show symptoms of infection such as trouble breathing, fever, sore throat or loss of the sense of smell and taste, and who may have been exposed to the virus will help prevent the spread of COVID-19 by identifying people who are in need of care in a timely fashion. A positive test early in the course of the illness enables individuals to isolate themselves – reducing the chances that they will infect others and allowing them to seek treatment earlier, likely reducing disease severity and the risk of long-term disability, or death.

Testing of people who have been in contact with others who have a documented infection is also important. A negative test doesn’t mean you’re in the clear; you could become infectious later. Therefore, even if you test negative, you need to continue to protect yourself and others by washing your hands frequently, physically distancing, and wearing a face mask. A positive test makes it clear that you have to isolate yourself, and that others with whom you have been in contact since the time of your exposure should also get tested.

Since it is recognized that nearly half of all SARS-CoV-2 infections are transmitted by people who are not showing any symptoms, identifying infected individuals while they are presymptomatic, as well as those who are asymptomatic, will play a major role in stopping the pandemic.

  1. Testing can be easy and quick

Initially, the only test available required getting a sample from the back of a person’s throat. New developments, some of which are supported by two other NIH projects, RADx Tech and RADx-ATP (Advanced Technology Platforms), will provide more comfortable and equally accurate tests that obtain the sample from inside the nose. On the horizon for large-scale use are tests that will use a simple mouth swab or a saliva sample. 

A positive test for SARS-CoV-2 alerts an individual that they have the infection. Not only can they get treated faster, but they can take steps to minimize the spread of the virus.

This is why it is so important to get the test results quickly, ideally within a few hours or less.

Early in the pandemic, there was not enough capacity and limited supplies to collect and process the tests, which resulted in delays. However, lab equipment has improved, capacity and supply have expanded, and results are being returned, on average, within 3-4 days. In fact, point-of-care tests will be available that provide a result in less than 15 minutes!

  1. Testing matters more in the communities affected the most

Communities of color are disproportionately burdened by the COVID-19 pandemic. Some individuals in these communities are essential workers, who cannot work from home, increasing their risk of being exposed to the virus. In addition, multi-generational living situations or multi-family housing arrangements can allow the virus to spread more quickly if one household member gets infected. Comorbid conditions that worsen the health risks of COVID-19, such as heart disease, obesity and diabetes, are also more common in minority communities because of long-standing societal and environmental factors and impediments to healthcare access. Therefore, COVID-19 can spread quickly in these communities, and the impact of that spread is great. Testing, particularly of asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic individuals, is key to interrupting this spread.

Unfortunately, there still is a lot of confusion about where to get a test and who should get tested. It is becoming clear that for a person to test positive, they have to have a significant amount of the virus in their system. This means that if you have no symptoms but think or were told that you were in contact with a person with COVID-19, you should isolate yourself immediately, call your health care provider, and then get a test. If you have any question, always call your health care provider or local county public health office. You can also contact the CDC Hotline at 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636).

Staying informed is essential. We encourage you to look to up-to-date, trusted sources of information about COVID-19, such as resources from the NIH website or MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine’s consumer information resource. 

Over the next few months, you’ll have opportunities, such as those listed at the NIH’s vaccine trial sites, to help scientists discover if the vaccines being evaluated now are effective. If you become ill with COVID-19, you can to participate in clinical trials underway to develop and evaluate a wide range of potential treatments, as well as several possible vaccines. So that these therapies will work for everyone, it is important for people from diverse communities across the country to participate in this research. We hope that in the not too distant future, these efforts will lead to therapies that will put an end to the pandemic.

In the meantime, let’s all continue to protect ourselves and others from getting infected, and get tested if you believe you have been in contact with someone with COVID-19. 

Top Row (left to right):
Diana W. Bianchi, M.D., Director, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development 
Patricia Flatley Brennan, R.N., Ph.D., Director, National Library of Medicine
Gary H. Gibbons, M.D., Director, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Joshua Gordon, M.D., Ph.D., Director, National Institute of Mental Health

Middle Row (left to right):
Richard J. Hodes, M.D., Director, National Institute on Aging
Jon R. Lorsch, Ph.D., Director, National Institute of General Medical Sciences
George A. Mensah, M.D., Division Director, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Eliseo J. Pérez-Stable, M.D., Director, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities

Bottom Row (left to right):
William Riley, Ph.D., Director, NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research
Tara A. Schwetz, Ph.D., Associate Deputy Director, National Institutes of Health and Acting Director, National Institute of Nursing Research
Nora D. Volkow, M.D., Director, National Institute on Drug Abuse